The iLRN 2020 Virtual Conference has now concluded. If you registered for the conference, recordings of many of the sessions are available to you on the respective pages for the sessions on this site (you will need to be logged in to view the content). If you did not register for the conference, please sign up for a free individual membership of iLRN and we will contact you in due course to provide you with details on how you can gain access to the recordings.

Additionally, a highlights reel from the conference is available here.
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Wednesday, June 24 • 7:00pm - 8:00pm
Embodied Learning

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Presentation 1: Conceptualising Embodiment Through Virtual Reality for Education (Full Paper #37)

Authors: Erica Southgate

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The concept of embodiment has been central to the design of XR (extended reality) technologies and is key to the deployment of and research on immersive learning, especially through virtual reality. Despite the important place that the notion holds in the immersive learning field, there have been few conceptual frameworks developed to assist developers, practitioners and educators understand how they might consider various aspects of embodiment and their implications for learning. The purpose of this paper is to present a set of theoretical and empirical ways through which to reflect on how the body and human virtuality intertwine and how this occurs in educational endeavours. Specifically, the paper reviews how embodiment has been treated in the immersive learning literature, with a focus on virtual reality, and presents a conceptual framework, devised from the sociology of the body, intended to facilitate nuanced exploration of the topic in immersive learning. The paper concludes by demonstrating the utility of the conceptual framework by applying it to findings from the (deidentified) Study, a unique investigation into embedding immersive virtual reality into school classrooms.

Presentation 2: Embodied, Gesture-Based STEM Education: 2D Computer versus 3D VR Effects on Learning (Full Paper #30)

Authors: Mina Johnson-Glenberg, Man Su, Hannah Bartolomea, Vanessa Ly, Ricardo Nieland Zavala and Elena Kalina

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The objective of this randomized control study was to determine how the two factors of embodiment (low versus high) and learning platform (PC versus Virtual Reality (VR)) affected STEM learning. A total of 214 undergraduate participants played through four conditions in a 2 x 2 design with pretests and posttests. The low embodied groups did not control the net in the natural selection game, they observed a playback of butterflies being captured. All four groups showed significant gains at posttest in learning. In addition, there was a group by time interaction that was driven by the relatively lower performance of the low embodied VR group. Participants in that group were in an immersive, standalone VR headset, but they could not manipulate the virtual net. Those low embodied VR players may have expected to have had more agency over the mechanics and playing in the observational mode was infelicitous for learning. Interestingly, the low embodied PC condition was not significantly affected by being in the more passive and observational mode. Players in the PC condition may have been more accustomed to low embodied learning, for example, watching playback videos on 2D monitors. These results support several guidelines for learning design in immersive VR. Non-interactive objects and videos in VR should be used judiciously and, when possible, designers should make the 3D VR content be manipulable and interactive.

Presentation 3: Presence and Platform: Effects of Embodiment and 2D Computer versus 3D VR (Full Paper #31)

Authors: Elena Kalina and Mina Johnson-Glenberg

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This randomized control study focused on how presence – the feeling of being there – is affected by the two factors of 1) embodiment (low versus high) and 2) learning platform (PC versus Virtual Reality (VR)). Embodiment was deemed low if participants watched playbacks of the natural selection game in action, and it was deemed high if players could use a mouse or the VR hand control to manipulate the content. Two dependent variables of presence and engagement were assessed. The 147 participants were randomly assigned to four conditions in this 2 x 2 design. Results reveal that, overall those in the high embodiment conditions report higher presence, and overall those in the VR platform report higher presence. Although, pairwise analyses showed that the high embodied PC group reported more presence (and engagement) than the low embodied VR group. This suggests that ‘platform is not destiny’. If an educational game or application is not one that gives the learner control and agency, then both presence and engagement will be diminished.

avatar for Erica Southgate

Erica Southgate

Associate Professor, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia
My new book, Virtual Reality in Curriculum and Pedagogy: Evidence from Secondary Classrooms (Routledge, 2020), is just out. I am Chief Investigator on the VR School Study, an ongoing, participatory research project with teachers, that explores how VR can be embedded in real classrooms... Read More →
avatar for Man Su

Man Su

Research Assistant & Ph.D. Student, Arizona State University
My research focuses on the design, development, integration, and evaluation of immersive learning experience. Currently, I am conducting research on agent-based simulation to help students learn natural selection and understand nonlinear, decentralized, and emergent processes of complex... Read More →

Hannah Bartolomea

Undergraduate Research Assistant, Arizona State University

Elena Kalina

Research assistant, Arizona State University

Wednesday June 24, 2020 7:00pm - 8:00pm PDT
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